The National Prosecutions Service is established as an independent and autonomous public office vide National Prosecutions Services (Establishment) Order, 2018 (Government Notice No. 49 of 2018 of 13th February, 2018) to institutionalise the constitutional mandate of the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) who plays a vital role in the administration of criminal justice. The DPP, according to Article 59B of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1977, is the sole authority vested with powers and responsibility to exercise control over the prosecution of all criminal matters in all courts with the exception of Court-Martial. In this regard, the DPP has powers to institute, prosecute and supervise all criminal prosecutions in the country. According to the said Article of the Constitution, the powers conferred on the DPP are vested in him to the exclusion of any other person or authority and he is not subjected to the control of any other person or authority. In carrying out his functions, the DPP is obliged to have regard to the following principles: the need to do justice; the need to prevent abuse of legal process; and the public interest. This position is echoed by section 8 of the National Prosecutions Service Act, Cap. 430. The Government Notice No.49 of 2018 sets the general framework within which the Office of the National Prosecutions Service, its organisation, management, monitoring, supervision of prosecution and coordination of investigation is supposed to be with a view to promoting and enhancing dispensation of criminal justice and related matters.

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